1, Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut. The smooth hammerhead is potentially dangerous to humans. This shark is also used in Chinese medicine. The specific epithet zygaena originates from the Greek word zygòn, meaning "yoke", referring to the shape of its head. While edible, the meat is considered undesirable and not marketed. This coastal shark prefers shallow waters, and are reported to even venture in freshwater. The dermal denticles are densely packed, each with 5–7 horizontal ridges (3 in juveniles) leading to a W-shaped rear margin. It is the second largest Hammerhead species and usually ranges from brown to dark green with a white belly. Accepted name: Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758) Scientific synonyms and common names Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms: Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758) Squalus zygaena Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. The families Carcharhinidae (excluding. The largest of them all is the Great Hammerhead Shark. Birthing occurs in shallow coastal nurseries, such as Bulls Bay in North Carolina. Published scientific estimates of hammerhead shark population declines from various ocean basins worldwide. When fully grown, it gets to 6 meters in length (20ft) and weighs 170 kilograms (600 pounds). Much more valuable are the fins, which have the highest rating for use in shark fin soup and often leads to captured sharks being finned at sea. Hammerhead Shark; Great Hammerhead; Smooth Hammerhead; Common Hammerhead;... Scientific Name: Sphyrna spp. Binomial name | Sphyrna zygaena The smooth hammerhead, Sphyrna zygaena, also known as the common hammerhead, is a large hammerhead shark that mainly inhabits temperate coastal waters throughout the world. Sporting a wide and smooth cephalophoil or “hammerhead” this seasonal migrant is the second largest in the genus Sphyrna. Fewer than 10 smooth hammerheads were caught annually in the nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from 1978–1990. Description: Hammerhead Sharks are a strange looking with its hammer type looking head, but very tough fighting Shark . Sphyrna bigelowi S. Springer, 1944. This species is usually considered to be amphitemperate (absent from the tropics) in distribution, though there are rare reports from tropical waters such as in the Gulf of Mannar off India, and off southern Mozambique. Dark olive to brownish-gray in color with a white underside. Binomial name; Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758) Range of the bonnethead shark The bonnethead shark or shovelhead (Sphyrna tiburo) is a small member of the hammerhead shark genus Sphyrna, and part of the family Sphyrnidae. S. zygaena, S. lewini, and S. mokarran have represented 5.9% of the fins auctioned in Hong Kong in past years (Clarke et al., 2006). Ebert, D.A. They occasionally venture into freshwater; Indian River, Florida, USA (G. Burgess pers. This name was later changed to Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) which is currently the valid name. 2003. The average litter size is 35. The name was later changed to Sphyrna zygaena. Off New Zealand, it is a prohibited target species and is the most abundant shark along the northwest coast. smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena). To save our hammerheads, we must implement stronger levels of protection for them and reduce fishing pressure. The head is indented opposite each nostril. The Smooth Hammerhead Shark takes its name from the absence of any indentations on its hammer shaped head. 2006. Scientific Name: Sphyrna spp. comm.) This shark is potentially dangerous and has likely been responsible for a few attacks on humans, though it is less likely to encounter swimmers than other large hammerhead species due to its temperate habitat. Off southern California, this species has been reported to steal catches from sport fishers and divers. The moderately tall first dorsal fin has a rounded apex and is falcate in shape with a free rear tip in front of the origin of the pelvic fins. The body is grey-brown above and lighter on the underside. Scientific name: Sphyrna zygaena (Smooth Hammerhead) Diet: A migratory predator with a good sense of smell, it eats fish, squid, octopus, crustaceans and, in particular, stingrays. prey: Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Dolphifish. > Check the status of the smooth hammerhead at the IUCN website. The smooth hammerhead shark was originally described by Swedish natural historian Karl Linnaeus in 1758 as Squalus zygaena. It usually lives in warm waters and continental shelves. Common Name: Smooth Hammerhead Shark Scientific Name:Sphyrna zygaena. Fishes in the Fresh Waters of Florida Gallery, Check the status of the smooth hammerhead at the IUCN website, English: smooth hammerhead, common hammerhead, common smooth hammerhead round-headed hammerhead, Portuguese: cambeba, cornuda, martelo, pata, Spanish: cabeza de martillo, cachona, carnuda, corna, leunada, martell, martillo, pez martillo, sarda de cachas, Bass, A.J., D’Aubrey, J.D. Characterized by a broad, smooth, spade-like head, it has the smallest cephalofoil (hammerhead) of all Sphyrna species. Gerard Soury/Oxford Scientific/Getty Images. The scalloped hammerhead (S. lewini) is slightly smaller with a rounded anterior margin and notched head. Their name comes from the shape of their cephalofoil (their hammer). The nostrils are located near the ends of the cephalofoil, with long grooves running towards the center. Typically, bonnethead sharks are about 2–3 ft (0.61–0.91 m) long, with a maximum size of about 5 ft (150 cm). These animals can reach a maximum length of about 20 feet (6 meters), although they are about 12 feet (3.6 meters) long on average. The reproductive process is still quite a mystery in the scientific communities. ; Domingo, A.; Gaibor, N.; Heupel, M.R. Articles Characteristics Species Record Weird Sea Creatures Contact : Hammerhead Species. This is in contrast to the brown coloration that is common to many other species of hammerheads. Off the eastern United States, catches of this species are regulated by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Atlantic shark Fishery Management Plan (FMP), under which it is classified as a Large Coastal Shark (LCS). The name Sphyrna translates from Greek as “hammer”, referring to the head shape of this genus. The Scalloped Hammerhead has an undulating margin to the front of the head with an indention medially. The nursery habitats are generally smooth sandy substrate in shallow waters (10 m) (Bass et al. Size - Up to 4m Weight - Up to 400kg Life Expectancy - Up to 20 years. Dinâmica de populações e pesca do tubarão-martelo Sphyrna lewini capturado no mar territorial e zona econômica exclusiva do sudeste-sul do Brasil. Every species has two Latin names which allow people to be certain they are talking about the same creature no matter what language they speak. Diet - Small sharks, skates and stingrays. As you might guess by its name, the great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) is the largest of the hammerhead sharks. Name: Scientific: Sphyrna zygaena: German: Glatter Hammerhai English: Smooth hammerhead, Black hammerhead, Balance fish French: Requin-marteau commun Spanish: Cornuda cruz Appearance: Large hammerhead. and Kistnasamy, N. 1975. 1948. Why have two species of hammerhead sharks been listed? Biology: Sphyrna Zygaena is viviparous. Overview … The origin of this first dorsal is located over the pectoral fin insertions. Hammerhead Shark – Scientific name: Sphyrnidae. Pelvic fins are not falcate with straight or slightly concave posterior margins. Fish Identification: Find Species. The Greek name zýgaina had already been used for the hammerhead shark by Aristotle in the second book of his History of Animals. In the summer, these sharks migrate towards the poles following cool water masses, sometimes forming schools numbering in the hundreds to thousands. Sears Found. Smooth Hammerhead Shark Skull measures 5 in. These hammerhead sharks are on the Finalised Priority Assessment List of items currently under assessment by the Threatened Species Scientific Committee for inclusion in the national threatened species list under the EPBC Act. The back is dark brownish gray to olive in color, in contrast to the simple brown of most other hammerheads, becoming lighter on the flanks. In Northern Europe, there are only six confirmed records from the British Isles, all but one (at Banffshire) from the southern part of the archipelago and all but one (in 2004) from more than 100 years ago. Source: CEPSUL collection, Jorge E. Kotas. Biological observations on sharks caught by sports fishermen off New South Wales. In the western Atlantic Ocean, this species is found from Canada south to the Virgin Islands and from Brazil south to Argentina, while in the eastern Atlantic it occurs from the British Isles south to Côte d’Ivoire, including the Mediterranean Sea. The Swedish natural historian Carl Linnaeus, known as the "father of taxonomy", originally described the smooth hammerhead as Squalus zygaena in the 1758 tenth edition of Systema Naturae, without designating a type specimen. The scientific name of the shark is Sphyrna lewini. The weight of this animal is about 230-450kg (500-1000lbs) and average life span is 20-25 years. Larger sharks will prey on juveniles and sub-adults, however, adults have no major predators. On occasion, the smooth hammerhead has been known to enter freshwater habitats including the Indian River along the coast of Florida (US). The NSW Fisheries Scientific Committee (FSC) has found that the Great Hammerhead Shark is facing a high risk of extinction in NSW in the medium-term future and therefore it has been listed as a Vulnerable species. Adult smooth hammerheads are either solitary or form small groups. Its presence in the tropics is difficult to determine due to confusion with other hammerhead species. X:234 ('Habitat in Europa, America'). The nostrils are located near the ends of the cephalofoil, with long grooves running towards the center. During summer months, smooth hammerheads form schools during migrations North to warmer waters and again during their return in winter (Ebert, 2003). The species is believed to live 20 years or more, but this is not yet known (Casper, 2005). They readily scavenge from fishing lines. ; Kotas, E.; Lamónaca, A.F. Fish Group: Shark. The pectoral and pelvic fins are not falcate, rather having nearly straight rear margins. The head (or cephalophoil) of a Smooth Hammerhead is smooth and more rounded in shape. It is an active predator that takes a wide variety of bony fishes and invertebrates, with larger individuals also feeding on sharks and rays. Rating: Countries: Australia. The Smooth Hammerhead Shark (Sphyrna zygaena) is not currently listed as a threatened or protected species in NSW. Etymology Scientific Names Scalloped hammerhead was first described by Griffith and Smith as Zygaena lewini in 1834, then renamed as Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834) and remained using this name. The second-largest hammerhead next to the great hammerhead, the smooth hammerhead typically measures 2.5–3.5 m (8.2–11.5 ft) long, with a maximum recorded length and weight of 5 m (16 ft) and 400 kg (880 lb) respectively. In contrast, in the nets off New South Wales, Australia, smooth hammerheads comprised 50% of the 4,715 sharks captured from 1972–1990. There exist seven species. 2. Ciênciias da engenharia ambienta. The name was later changed to the current Sphyrna mokarran. Intertaxon relationships. Very little is known about the life history of the species still but believed to reach a maximum of 370-400 cm (12-13 ft.) (Compagno, 2005). Salt/Fresh: Salt. Head broadly arched and hammer-shaped and lacking an indentation at midline (“smooth”), 2. English: scalloped hammerhead, bronze hammerhead shark, hammerhead, hammerhead shark, kidney-headed shark, scalloped hammerhead shark, and southern hammerhead shark They can be distinguished from other hammerheads by their large "hammer," which has a … Scientific & Common Names. Females become sexually mature when they’re about 250-300 cm long. Of the hammerhead sharks, the smooth hammerhead is the species most tolerant of temperate water, and occurs worldwide to higher latitudes than any other species within its family. Tiger shark, great white shark, killer whale are dangerous for hammerhead sharks. As you might guess by its name, the great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) is the largest of the hammerhead sharks. The name Sphyrna translates from Greek to the English language “hammer”, referring to the hammer-shaped head of this species. At night it goes hunting on its own. Tanaka, S., Kitamura, T. and Nakano, H., 2002. Denticles densely arranged with w-shaped posterior margins. Scientific name. Babies are born no longer than 60 cm after a gestation period of 11 months. Phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA have concluded differently: while the smooth and great hammerheads are closely related, they are not as closely related to the scalloped hammerhead as the other Sphyrna species. Off South Africa, newly mated females have been caught in February and females with full-term embryos in November; off the east coast of Australia, birthing takes place between January and March, with ovulation taking place around the same time. New Zealand non-detriment finding for smooth hammerhead shark Sphyrna zygaena Hugh A Robertson New Zealand Scientific Authority for CITES Science & Policy Group Department of Conservation PO Box 10-420 Wellington NEW ZEALAND 1. The second-largest hammerhead shark after the great hammerhead shark, the smooth hammerhead can measure up to 5 m (16 ft) long. pp. The smooth hammerhead shark was originally described by Swedish natural historian Karl Linnaeus in 1758 as Squalus zygaena. Kotas, J.E. Furthermore, the smooth hammerhead is among the more basal hammerhead species, indicating that the first hammerheads to evolve had large cephalofoils. Juveniles form large aggregations, while adults occur individually or in small groups. Pups measure approximately 50-61 cm (20-24 in.) The anal fin is larger than the second dorsal fin, with long free rear tip and a strong notch in the rear margin. According to the International Shark Attack File, there have been 15 unprovoked attacks for all species of the genus Sphyrna, but no fatalities. The smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena) is a species of hammerhead shark, and part of the family Sphyrnidae. Scientific Name. 1975). In northern Europe, the smooth hammerhead feeds on herring and seabass, while in North America it takes Spanish mackerel and menhaden. United States. Casper, B.M. SMOOTH HAMMERHEAD SHARK ... Scientific Name - Sphyrna zygaena Conservation Status - Vulnerable Location - Worldwide in tropical and temperate waters. Dippenaar, S.M., Olivier, P.A. and Benz, G.W., 2001. Chondrichthyes Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. Colour - Olive-grey or dark grey-brown on top, white underneath. There are nine species of hammerhead sharks.These include Sphyrna corona (scalloped bonnethead, crown shark, mallethead shark), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna media (scoophead shark), Sphyrna mokarran (squat-headed hammerhead shark, great hammerhead), Sphyrna tiburo (bonnethead shark), Sphyrna tudes (smalleye hammerhead shark, curry … Scientific name: Sphyrnidae: Characteristics : broad, flat head resembling a hammer: The hammerhead shark has been named after the shape of its head, which resembles a hammer. Most hammerheads have indentations at the front part of their hammer, but Sphyrna zygaena doesn’t, hence their name “smooth” hammerhead. 2. How To … Also Known As: Hammerhead Shark; Great Hammerhead; Smooth Hammerhead; Common Hammerhead; Scalloped Hammerhead; SHARK, HAMMERHEAD. In the western Pacific, it occurs from the Gulf of Tonkin to southern Japan and Siberia, as well as off Australia and New Zealand. Relatively few attacks have been attributed to this species due to its common occurrence in temperate rather than tropical waters where humans are more likely to enter the water. Synonyms used in past scientific literature to refer to the scalloped hammerhead include Cestracion leeuwenii (Day 1865), Zygaena erythraea (Klunzinger 1871), Cestracion oceanica (Garman 1913), and Sphyrna diplana (Springer 1941). Class: Elasmobranchii Order: Carcharhiniformes Family: Sphyrnidae Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks Genus: Sphyrna (See list of species below) Occurrence and feeding of three shark species, Southall, E.J. Broad and narrow-bladed head with a broadly arched anterior margin and no median indentation. With older sharks preferring to migrate in smaller groups. The scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) is a species of hammerhead shark, and part of the family Sphyrnidae.Originally known as Zygaena lewini, its genus name was later changed to its current name.The Greek word sphyrna translates into "hammer" in English, referring to the shape of this shark's head. The smooth hammerhead differs from other large hammerheads in the shape of its cephalofoil, which has a curved front margin without an indentation in the center. Although generally preferring subtropical and warm temperate regions, a study of captures in the West Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico off the United States recorded smooth hammerheads in water temperatures ranging from 7.5 to 27.5 °C (45.5–81.5 °F). This species is named "smooth hammerhead" because of the distinctive shape of the head, which is flattened and laterally extended into a hammer shape (called the "cephalofoil"), without an indentation in the middle of the front margin (hence "smooth"). 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