After preparing your soil for the best conditions for the growth of your plant, you can now plant your soybean seeds. Many producers plant soybeans shallow (as long as moisture is present) thinking that this will result in quick emergence. On April 22, Bohner planted soybeans into excellent soil … The soybean plant is the king of deer feed. Furthermore, these relatively shallow planting depths allow for faster emergence when temperatures are rapidly declining. SMaRT is a partnership between MSU Extension and the Michigan Soybean Checkoff program. Soybeans are potent in protein carrying 25% to 30% in the plant itself when the plant is in soil that has good fertility. Plant the seeds ½ inch deep 2-3 inches apart once the danger of frost has passed. An early 2.5 soybean planted early in Centre County will usually be ready to harvest in late September. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Strengthening Nebraska's Agricultural Economy, Soybean Planting Depth: Consider Planting Deeper. April 27, 2016. Planting depth. However, the larger cotyledons on large seed are more difficult to pull through a soil crust, so plant large seed shallower when planting into soils prone to crusting. Seed planted too shallowly may also be late in germinating, probably due to inadequate moisture. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. The SMaRT project was developed to help Michigan producers increase soybean yields and farm profitability. Also, consider seed size when deciding how deep to plant. Check out the MSU Agricultural Industries Certificate Program! All soybean plots were planted into 30-inch rows with planting dates of May 30 and June 4, 2011; May 1, 2012; and April 29, 2013. If planting 2 inches deep to access uniform moisture, make sure the variety has an excellent emergence score. Large seed contains more stored energy and should be able to emerge from greater depths than small seed. "We know that it's a little risky to plant soybeans deep -- let's say deeper than 2 inches -- because heavy rain might seal them in before they can emerge," he continued. Planting and spacing. Soybean seed is very sensitive to planting depth, so producers need to be careful and get their crop off to a good start. Plant soybean seeds 1 to 2 inches deep in rows 24 to 30 inches apart. “Even a disk … Many of today’s soybeans are Round-Up Ready, meaning that you can spray these soybeans with a glyphosate herbicide and it will not harm the soybean plants but will kill the weeds (Round-Up is a trade name for glyphosate). Plant seeds at a depth of 1-2 inches. Plant shallow when planting early, deeper when planting later; shallow under moist conditions, deeper under dry conditions; shallow on heavy soils, slightly deeper on light, well-drained soils. The two plants on the left were planted at least 1 inch deeper than the emerged plants on the right and the seed was placed about 3 inches deep. The rule of thumb has been to plant deeper when soil is drier or lighter (sandy) and shallower when soil is colder, wetter and heavier (clays). Space seeds about 2 to 4 inches apart in the rows. Soybean plants emerge best when seeds are planted 1 to 1-1/2 inches deep. Soybeans can suffer from powdery mildew, leaf blight, root rot, and other bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. Bury the sclerotia deeper than 2 inches with tillage operations. The best soybean yields occur on well-drained, but not sandy soils having a pH of 6.5 or above. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Taking time to check planting depth is important regardless of the planting equipment used. Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. The data also showed that this planting depth was consistent for all site-years of the study. Planting Depth Soybeans prefer to be planted within the narrow range of one to one-and-a-half inches. The seed must imbibe (take-in) 50 percent of its weight in moisture in order for the germination process to begin and remain above 20 percent after the seed swells and the seed coat splits. Do not overwater newly planted beans, otherwise they may crack. by Kevin Steffey This is an important question with more than one answer; you could waste a lot of time and money planting at the wrong time, and depending on what you are trying to achieve, and where you are geographically, the answer could vary greatly. (See Figure 1). Planting depth. Planting depths of 1 inch and 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0, 2.25, and 2.5 inches were evaluated in 2011 and an additional planting depth of 2.75 inches was added in 2012 and 2013. It’s higher in protein (approximately 25-30 percent), offers a good number of carbohydrates and is more palatable than most food sources available to deer. For a long time the recommendation was to plant corn 1.75 inches deep, but growers have increasingly been putting seed down at 2 or 2.25 inches while planting earlier. Soybean Planting Rates The suggested soybean planting rates and final stands for different row spacings are provided in Table 4. Planting depth should be about 1.25 1 to 1.5 inches, depending on soil moisture conditions, and should not exceed 2 inches. On planters, our Valion seed tube guards keep the opener blades at the correct distance from one another so that the blades form a furrow of consistent width. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). This information is for educational purposes only. This procedure is discussed in more detail in the Michigan State University Extension article, “Reconfiguring planting units on no-till drills to improve soybean planting performance.”. When it comes to seeding depth, early results from Bohner’s Bornholm, Ont., research location are already supporting his belief that one and a half inches is the best planting depth for soybean. Mike Staton, Michigan State University Extension - In this case, most of the seed was planted too deep (see photo). Sampling leaves for plant tissues analysis is vital for precise Fertilizer Software. Period. However, depth control on drills and air seeders equipped with gauge wheels mounted on single disk openers can be greatly improved. Sow the soybeans 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) deep into the soil, and space the beans about 3 inches (7.6 cm) apart. One of the study's hypotheses was that planting deeper would buffer soil temperature and moisture and protect newly emerged seedlings from frost and freeze damage, particularly when planting early in the season. Since we wouldn’t want our seeds to be buried too deep in the soil, we must first pulverize the soil and make it firmer by using a cultipacker. The optimum depth for planting soybeans is 1 inch to 1.5 inches deep. Planting depth surveys revealed that only 20 percent of the fields planted with drills were planted at or near the intended depth. Like other types of beans, soybeans don’t do well when transplanted because of their shallow roots. This practice will be less beneficial if sclerotia from previous infestations are present in the soil and it increases the long-term survival … Under most conditions, soybeans should be planted between 1 and 1.5 inches deep. For soybeans planted on droughty soils in cen- Later planting dates in 2011 were due to cold-wet planting conditions in conventional-till fields and the inability to get into those fields earlier. This research was conducted at different locations over the years including Clay Center, Lincoln, Cedar Bluffs, and Mead. This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. 4- Seed about a million seeds per acre. This can provide an excellent situation to plant winter wheat or even barley without any late planting impacts. To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. We looked at numerous factors but because this research has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, we can only share specific information regarding the planting depth studies. This is true when large seed is planted in coarse-textured soils. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Communications Bldg.Lincoln, NE 68583-0918. Plant soybeans 1" to 1½" deep. Across all site-years, regardless of early or late planting dates or tillage type, a planting depth of 1.75 inches maximized soybean yields. This is why agronomists recommend planting soybeans into at least 0.5 inch of moist soil. Nebraska research has demonstrated the value of planting soybeans early. "Only 46% of Indiana soybean growers plant in the recommended seeding depth, which is three-fourths of an inch to an inch and a half deep," says Shawn Conley, Purdue Extension soybean specialist. With planting date responses for the two crops essentially identical on a percentage basis, w… The shallower seed emerged two weeks later than the deeper seed and yielded 1.6 bushels per acre less. Research we conducted at UNL looked at several factors including soybean populations and planting depths over a three-year period (2011-2013). Soybean seed can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils. Adequate soil moisture is the most important factor affecting soybean germination. Practice no-till. Generally, early soybeans do best planted early, and later soybeans planted later. Producers and agronomists have long used 1.5 inch as the average planting depth for soybeans. Soybean farmers need to be careful about how deep they plant their seeds this growing season because, if not, they may see delayed emergence or even decreased They also represent conventional, strip-till, and no-till systems. Put beans in the ground 2-3 weeks after the last frost date, when soil temperatures are about 60°F. This may require planting deeper than 1.5 inches under dry soil conditions. Thin to 6" in all directions. Soybeans can usually emerge from 2.5 – 3 inches deep, but this is an additional stress; plant them no deeper than what it takes to get them reliably into good moisture. Planting soybean seed at the proper depth will produce more uniform stands and higher yields. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. fairviewfarmer Posted 3/7/2011 18:13 (#1656397 - in reply to #1654577) Subject: Re: How deep to plant soybeans? Now that we’ve passed the first week of April, plantings of this year’s corn or soybean crops from now on can’t be considered “very early”, but the message from some agronomists about the need to plant soybeans as early as March continues, and more producers are choosing to begin planting soybeans before they begin planting corn. Select the most resistant/tolerant varieties available. Now producers are asking: "If I plant my soybeans early, how deep should I plant them?". While we can't show all the data here, the results in fact showed the optimal planting depth was around 1.75 inches. ISU Extension and Outreach recommendations for soybean planting depth can be found in the Soybean Growth and Development publication (PM 1945). Plant the soybean seeds two inches apart, in holes that are approximately 1-1/2 inches deep. Jim Specht, UNL Professor of Agronomy and Horticulture Jenny Rees, UNL Extension Educator Keith Glewen, UNL Extension Educator Patricio Grassini, UNL Extension Cropping Systems Agronomist, 105 Ag. As of Monday 6% of Nebraska soybeans had been planted, according to the USDA National Ag Statistics Service. If planting early or into moist soils, planting depth can be set to 1 inch. Furthermore, deer don’t have to work hard to eat it. Adjust your soybean planting equipment as soil and crop residue conditions change and dig up seed frequently to verify that it is placed at the intended depth and into at least 0.5 inch of moist soil. Deer can also put significant pressure on soybean plants. Planters typically provide better depth control than drills or air seeders. If a producer wants to keep the population the same while decreasing row spacing, it is necessary to reduce the number of seeds or plants per foot of row. Adequate soil moisture is the most important factor affecting soybean germination. The variety had an excellent emergence rating and many of the plants were able to finally emerge, but with lower energy reserves and vigor than the plants that were planted at the correct depth. Soybeans grow best where the daytime temperature averages between 60°F and 70°F (16-21°C). Common Pests and Diseases. “For soybeans, I would advise tilling as little as possible,” says Wiebold. Remember, never plant deeper than 2-1/2 inches. A cheap and effective option is to reconfigure the planting units on drills or air seeders set up on 7.5-inch rows so that none of the gauge wheels run over the old corn row. Observations by the On-Farm Network team indicate that many soybean fields were planted at the wrong depth last year. Reconfiguring planting units on no-till drills to improve soybean planting performance. While that may be the case, shallow planting also may reduce stands. An even bigger concern is that in 68 percent of the fields, the seed was planted too deep, a condition known to delay emergence. Besides that soybeans are a warm season annual legume (A crop that is edible in seed, pod or other part of the plant is edible). Like corn, soybeans are actually very sensitive to planting depth. As a general rule, plant at the shallower end of the range under the following conditions: Planting at the deeper end of the range is recommended under the following conditions: Soybean seed can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils. Under most conditions, soybeans should be planted between 1 and 1.5 inches deep. If there is little or no moisture in the soil’s surface, planting shallow (1 to 1.5 inches deep) and waiting for rain is recommended. The researchers and authors would like to thank the Nebraska Soybean Board for their support of this research project. Last spring, I visited a sandy field of drilled soybeans that were emerging slowly and unevenly. Soybeans tissue analysis – recently matured leaf adequate element level. Soybeans are not frost-tolerant. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. I visited a field where a planter had failed to place the seed at the correct depth. With soybean planting just around the corner, now is a good time to consider planting depth. The units mounted to the center frame of the planter placed the seed at 1.5 inches deep and into moisture while the units mounted to the outer wings planted the seed 1 inch deep and into dry or marginal moisture conditions. “I used to recommend planting at 1 to 1.25 inches when planting early and 1.25 to 1.5 inches when planting late. Check out the MSU Viticulture Certificate Program! Soybean should be planted at 1 to 1.5 inches deep, but no deeper than 2 inches. Plant soybeans in late winter in warm-winter regions. This article was produced by the SMaRT project (Soybean Management and Research Technology). Table 2. Sow soybean seeds 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5cm) deep, 2 to 4 inches (5-1ocm) apart in rows 24 to 30 inches )61-76cm) apart. As a general rule, plant at the shallower end of the range under the following conditions: Early planting; High residue conditions; Fine-textured soils; Moist soils; Planting at the deeper end of the range is recommended under the following conditions: Late planting Water the beans once they’ve been planted, but only until the soil is moist. If planted too deeply, the seeds may take longer to germinate and emerge. Ideal seed depth for most conditions is 1¼ to 1½ inches, but beans can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils, or in dry conditions. Shallow depths of less than 1.25 inches with  seeding rates of 35K-105K resulted in lower yields, as did deeper planting depths of 2.25 inches or greater at these seeding rates. The seed must imbibe (take-in) 50 percent of its weight in moisture in order for the germination process to begin and remain above 20 percent after the seed swells and the seed coat splits. These site-years represent a wide range of early season growing conditions, from wet-cold to dry-warm; hence, results are applicable over a wide range of conditions. Plant populations also were evaluated with each planting depth; these included seeding rates of 35,000; 70,000; 105,000; 140,000; 175,000; and 210,000 seeds/acre. There is no benefit in fertilizing the crop incorrectly. We have to remember today’s corn seed lots have better cold tolerance and can be planted deeper and still have the strength and vigor to emerge. Planting Soybeans For Deer- When Is The Best Time To Plant Soybeans For Deer? Specht himself was surprised by the results. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. Try to plant at the correct time—when soil temperatures are above 55°F in the Corn Belt or by the calendar if you farm in the South. Soybeans, however, can emerge reasonably well from a 2.5 inch depth, if soil crusting is not prevalent during actual emergence from the soil. Sampling the first fully develop leaf at first flowering in highly recommended. If you must plant deeper than 1.5 inches in order to place the seed into uniform moisture, make sure the variety has an excellent emergence score or long hypocotyl. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Across all site-years, regardless of early or late planting dates or tillage type, a planting depth of 1.75 inches maximized soybean yields. "About 42% of growers are planting deeper than an inch and a half." Plant the seeds closer to 2 inches deep if the soil has a large sand content or is slightly dry. 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